The Development of thinking in children.
Being born into the light, a child is not able to perceive the interaction of events and things, just as adults do. Thinking of the little man at such a tender age is in its infancy.Gradually learning the world,the child learns to perceive and to feel separate phenomena and objects,and their images are fixed in the mind.Forming the foundations of a culture of thinking must begin in the first months since the birth of the baby.So,for example, 7-month old baby can pull up to a coveted rattle of garland above his crib,using the ribbon hanging out.Change the layout of rattles and the length of the ribbons,so the baby was developing and he was interesting.When the baby is able to stand in the crib,arrange for him an entertaining educational game . attach one end of the ribbon 3-4 different toys (a ringing bell,a rubber squeaky toy,a loud rattle),and another tie to the bars of the crib.The kid with pleasure will start to experiment,throwing toys on the floor and listening,the sound will publish one or another fallen toy.And with the help of ribbons will try to get all the toys back,thereby using it as a means to an end.
Important role in shaping the thinking of the child is the development of speech .Constantly communicating with others,the child masters the grammatical forms of the language and learns new words.With using words the child learns to generalize similar phenomena,to understand the relationship formed between them and think about their features.The baby develops attention and the ability to map what is happening around them, changes.Based on our own experience and knowledge transferred to an adult,the child learns to appreciate the sequence of events that have not occurred yet,but that should happen.The child develops memory and intelligence is formed .Imitative abilities help your child build sound conclusions and judgments,correctly correlating them with each other.When adults are different things with one and the same word (e.g.,chair, standing on a kitchen chair and,standing in the room),the child gradually learns to use the words in aggregate value.
Child psychologists identify three stages of formation of thinking in the child: the visual-active, visual-figurative and conceptual.For the timely development of thinking of the child on the 1st year of life requires constant, meaningful and emotionally rich communication with the people around him.Perform various practical tasks forms the visual-active thinking (in the first 2 years of life). Figuratively speaking,any thought of a baby can be “read” for its direct actions (the Child sees a toy, lying high up on the locker, he wants to get immediately and in the next moment, already climbing over it ). And the older child has can make decisions based on their experience and to act more consciously ,evaluating the consequences that may occur as a result of his actions.
So gradually formed visual-figurative thinking of the baby.For a small child the solution of any problems related to finding and using tools to achieve their goals.Try to often come up with for your toddler practice-the tasks that the child learned to use different objects (sticks,blades,ribbons,toys) to achieve a certain goal. For example,put in a low plastic Cup interesting for the baby thing ,and through the handle of the mug miss the light,moving the ribbon and put both ends of the ribbon on the table in front of the child.To get the coveted thing,baby will have to guess immediately pull the two ends of the ribbons.If the child at first you don’t succeed – help him out a little,direct his actions.Playing with the baby in these games,you will stimulate the development of elementary culture of thinking .
When the child reaches preschool age ,his thinking will take more and more complicated visual-figurative and conceptual forms.But,despite the fact that the child has reached the age of reason and owns much better logical thinking,rather than at the stage of early development,should take into account that this age is more sensitive to training based on visibility.
What are the factors that characterizes the thinking of a child at this age.
– Judgments of similarity. Child is still very small and uses a sequence of propositions (conclusions).During this period, the development of thinking, memory plays a dominant role, widely used judgment by analogy,as an illustrative example more effective at stimulating the perception of information.
– Specificity . Judgments children at this age are based on visual reality and personal experience.Therefore, a more categorical.When explaining something,the child prefers to bring everything to a publish (at this age the child is interested in books and movies with intense action, intense intriguing moments and adventures).
– Egocentrism . The child cannot adequately assess their actions,because it is difficult to look at ourselves (pre-concept thinking).All his actions are inextricably linked with himself,his own “I”. The clearest confirmation of egocentrism in preschool age is the child ,listing all family members, myself among them mentions.Phrase type. “And what would you do in place of this boy”. perceived by the preschooler is very aloof and does not evoke empathy.
Transaction . Another feature of the thinking of children of preschool age,characterized by the mixing of the basic properties of random objects with their features.This feature of the pre-concept of thinking is used as a child instead of induction and deduction instead.
We illustrate this property of thinking of the preschool child by example. Child 6 years of age said “the Sun is alive or not ?” “Yes” “Why do you think so ?” – “Because the sun moves. ”
– Syncretism . This quality of thinking is characterized by the fact that the child cannot explore any object systematically, to understand the relationship of the parts and make a comparison.Instead classify objects and their properties,the child of preschool age ,passing from one object to another,ascribes last generic properties of the previous object.Explaining the properties of any object,the child may use other properties of the same object.Preschool children can combine group items by similarity,but it is difficult for them to understand and highlight the properties that characterize these objects.
Curiosity. permanent cognitive activity of the child is directed to the study of the world and form their own picture of the world. The development of logical and creative thinking of the child is inextricably linked with the methods of proper education and the ability of adults to look at the reality through the eyes of a child.